Biographical Phases of the Master of Messengers Mohammed Almustafa

Shaikh Fawzi Alsaif

(O prophet, we have sent you as a witness, bearer of good tidings, and a warner* Also, you are a caller to Allah by his Will and an illumination)[1]

First of all, writers should confess their inability to encompass the gracious life of Prophet Mohammed due to his short life; that means, he passed away when he was sixty-three years old. It is a wonder how this limited period includes all virtues of pervious prophets and messengers.

Allah placed in him everything that the messengers had

And gave him more than they had

Historians narrated: Adam lived more than nine hundred years, Noah's age exceeded Adam's, Idris's life span was more than three decades…etc. However, Mohammed's short life enveloped and excelled the virtues and accomplishments of previous prophets' long decades. 

It is not easy to comprehend this perfection!

In other words, Prophet Mohammed excelled and mastered all other prophets although his life time is just one of twenty of theirs.

so, outlining the life of Prophet Mohammed is not an easy enterprise to manage. In this way, humans are completely at sea about this great prophet. I apologize beforehand for my imperfection in the field of this heavenly perfection.

Biography and Life Phases:

There are different methods in the research of Prophet Mohammed biography. Specifically, simplified chronological division of the prophet's life into three phases is adopted as follows:

Firstly: from his birth on 53 BH (before migration to Madinah) to the beginning of his mission when he was forty years old.

Secondly: from the beginning of his holy mission on 13 BH (before migration to Madinah) until the year of migration.

Thirdly: from migration to Madinah until death on 11 AH.


From his birth to the holy mission:

Prophet Mohammed was born in Mecca in 571 according to the Gregorian calendar, and in 53 (before migration) according to the Islamic calendar. His grandfather Abdulmutaleb proposed Amnah bint Wahab to Abdullah. The later, Abdullah passed away before the birth of Prophet Mohammed.

In Shiism, we believe that Abdullah is a monotheist on the path Prophet Abraham. Also, he survives from Hell and has an intercession status. 

Due to Mecca’s social and health circumstances, Abdulmutaleb sent his grandson, Mohammed, to Sa’ad Tribe to be fed there. Therefore, Halimah Sa'adia (may Allah be pleased with her), took the prophet to feed him.

Some contemporary writers claim that Halimah Sa'adia did not feed the prophet at all. Also, others believe that Sadia was obliged to take care of Mohammed as an orphan poor child since she could not get a child of a wealthy family.

Concerning the first claim, it is deemed futile and unscientific as I mentioned in my book entitled “Figures of Prophet Family” (A’alam Alosra Annabawia)

Then, the second opinion is refused since Abdulmutaleb was a luxurious prominent individual in his society to the extent that he conducted royal treatments with the kings of Rome, Yemen, and Ethiopia.

It does not need to say that any breastfeeder would like to feed a child whose father is the leader of the region. Moreover, Sa’adia found the immense blessing in dealing with this great prophet once she carried and hugged him. Specifically, her milk supply increased substantially to suffice both her son and the prophet.

Also, the blessing surrounded the camel which she used to ride. And it became fast, powerful and energetic once the prophet had gotten on it.


Another reason behind sending the prophet to Sa’ad Tribe is: the pure fluent language in the Bedouins, (although we believe that the prophet was not need to any regular human learning) but this is an ostensible reason.

 There is another reason behind sending Mohammed to the desert, that is the unhealthy environment of Mecca especially to kids. For instance, water supply was scarce, and there was no sewage for human and non human discharges, so men and women were going to the open air out of people sight to.

Imagin if this thing is in a country at this time, how the environment will be?

Even the filths and residuals of slaughtered animals were scattered in the middle of the country like “el Hazoura”, which is located fifty meters away from Kaaba and it was a slaughter country!

Also, it is mentioned that such filths and left overs were thrown at the holy prophet after the holy mission.

For these reasons, Mecca residents used to send their young children away from the city to the desert due to Mecca ailing nature.

Some writers hypothesized that Mohammed was urged to leave Mecca in order to save his life from Jewish assassination plots against the prophet once he was born. In fact, some Christian monks warned Abdulmutaleb that Jews would like to assassinate his grandson.

At last, it is worth pointing to the futileness of the Caliphs School narration, which say that two angels splitting the chest of the prophet in order to extract the Satanic portion from it. We consider this to be a fictitious story toiled by Ahl Al Kitab to raise their religious figures status over Prophet Mohammed. In other words, they claim that every person possesses a Satanic portion within him except Jesus!

On the other hand, we believe that if there is a Satanic portion within an individual, it is the act of devilish whispering and inducing. if it a tangible flesh or gland, will be easy to eradicate!

However, Prophet Mohammed grew up and went back again to Mecca under the custody of his grandfather Abdulmutaleb. After Abdulmutaleb's death, he recommended his son (Abutaleb) to this great task of adopting the prophet.

The prophet grew up uniquely receiving Allah’s direct care as Imam Ali put it:

From the time of his weaning, Allah had put a mighty angel with him to take him along the path of the highest character and the best behaviour in the world through day and night[2]

Once Prophet Mohammed reached the prime of his youth, he began earning his bread to not rest on others’ shoulders. Also, his uncle Abutaleb was an impoverished man with many children although he was a prominent figure. Therefore, the prophet sought working in trade since this was the common profession of Hashim Tribe and monotheists. In other words, monotheists considered trade an optimal job in accordance with their moral principles.

However, the prophet consulted his uncle Abutaleb to co-work the business with Khadijah Bint Khuwaild who was a single wealthy woman at that time. Khadijah and Mohammed consented to be partners in a speculative trade in which Khadijah contributed in the capital, and the prophet performed the business operations. Consequently, they divided the profits on ratio as agreed between them. However, this partnership operation is permitted (halal) in Islam.

As Khadijah began working with the prophet, he attracted her attention because he was too young, and his age was less than twenty years old. She was also heard that Christian and Jewish successive anticipations of a prophet to be missioned in Mecca from Hashim Tribe so, such prophecy is only applicable on Mohammed bin Abdullah. Moreover, Maysara, Khadijah’s slave, accompanied the prophet on the journey with the caravans and came back to tell Khadijah about Mohammed’s wondering character and behaviour.

Consequently, Khadijah was wisely infatuated with the great personality of Mohammed and took the initiative to ask him to marry, while he was twenty-five and she was about twenty-eight years old.

The prophet adored Khadijah; she is the best wife to the best prophet. In addition, Allah elevated the status of Khadijah to be the sole mother of the prophet’s male and female descendants through their daughter Fatimah.

After that, Mohammed was commissioned to be Allah’s messenger so, Khadijah believed in him and sacrificed everything for him.

 On the contrary to the belief of Caliphs School, they maximize Waraqa bin Nawfal, who remained christian until his death. So, it is not reasonable to Waraqa, to persuade Khadijah about the status of Mohammed rather than the prophet himself.


Second phase: from mission to the beginning of migration. It took thirteen years.

Once Prophet Mohammed received revelation from Allah, he began preaching Islam privately among his immediate relatives and poor people whose interests are not related to idolatry and not related also to unjust social system which was prevalent in Mecca, and those early believers were governed by their fathers and masters.

  Therefore, the prophet commenced the public preaching to Islam which led to a serious confrontation between the prophet with his followers and Quraish leading figures. The pillar of defence in the prophet party was his Uncle Abultaleb who told the prophet clearly: "O my nephew Get up and Inform of your God's mission, you are the most honest, the most protected, the most fluent, and the bravest."[3]

In this way, Prophet Mohammed announced the public preaching of Islam in response to Allah’s order: “So proclaim openly what you are commanded and turn away from the polytheists”. [4]

Despite Quraish attempts to prevent the prophet from accomplishing his holy mission and their repetitive assaults on him, Abultaleb defended Mohammed by all means until his death. After ten years of the mission “revelation”. After the death of "Abutaleb" and his "Khadija", prophet Mohammed lost two essential pillars of Islam.  

At that time, the prophet arranged for migration in the remaining three years of the mission.

Firstly, he sent a small group to Abyssinia.

 Secondly, he sent a big group of people led by Jafar bin Abitaleb to Abyssinia so, he saved believers of Quriash torture and massacre.

 Thirdly, he migrated to Abyssinia after appointing his cousin Ali bin Abitaleb to succeed him in Mecca in order to pay the debts and finalise his works. This was the first actual succession of Ali bin Abitableb in the management of Islamic affairs although the prophet had verbally referred to this issue (Ali succession) earlier in Yawm Ad dar narration[5]…

In the third phase, the prophet moved to Madinah to enlighten it. On his arrival, Madinah residents became “brothers by Allah favour...”[6]  after being torn by the continuous wars of Aws and Alkhazraj (the two main tribes there). Moreover, Allah rescued them by his elected prophet after being “on the brink of a fire pit”[7]. In this way, the prophet began constituting that community to be by Allah’s blessing “the best nation that ever emerged for humanity”[8].

Actually, it was not easy for Quraish to be defeated severely so, they sought revenge and told Abutaleb that Mohammed, his nephew, had cursed and defamed their idols. That is to say, Quraish complained to Abutaleb that the prophet had ruined their reputation here and there. Consequently, Muslims preserved their lives and religion by traveling out of Mecca. Meanwhile, Quraish was not able to do any thing at all even when they encountered Ali bin Abitaleb while he was young. so, Ali also got out to Madinah.

Being raged to war against the prophet and his companions, Quraish caught the opportunity when Muslims attempted to attack Quraish merchant caravan led by Abusufian. In the second year of migration, Quraish gathered an immense army to fight the prophet as the first battle between Muslims and Quraish (Allah had made you victorious at Bader while you were weak so, fear Allah that you may be grateful).[9] Then, Auhud battle took place in the second year of migration before the occurrence of Alkhandaq in the fifth year. These battles are examples of various major and minor confrontations that happened in such years. However, Muslims won all the conflicts and owed their success to Allah as he reminded them (Allah had made you victorious in many occasions)[10]. Imams referred to the number of such occasions as exceeding eighty ones including Khaibar Battle against Jews that ended by their evacuation form Medinah as a result of Jewish frequent betrayals and conspiracies. Further instances are fighting Thaqif Tribe and its allies in the day of Hunain. Muslims were triumphant until the prophet ruled Mecca smoothly without blood-shedding.

 The above mentioned summary is worthy of detailed revisiting in order to be able to perceive how the prophet was able to manage over eighty different battles throughout only ten years. Approximately, it was the average of eight battles every single year and one battle in each month and a half. Moreover, he was responsible for the mosque as well as religious and virtual guidance for the whole community including Imam Ali and other disciples. Also, it was on his shoulder to take care of his nine wives. It was really a miracle to be able to accomplish all such duties accurately in a few years.

After ten years of migration, Allah had perfected Islam through his prophet and completed his blessing upon the creatures by ordering the nation to follow Quran and the holy progeny to avoid deviation from the straight path. In this way, it was narrated that the prophet told people about the head of the progeny Imam Ali in many incidents, including the event of Ghadeer, in order to assert the position of Imam Ali as the leader of Muslims after the prophet.

As it is the course of life, Prophet Mohammed passed away on the 28th of Safar after eleven years of migration 28/2/11. (you will die and they will die).[11]

[1]( يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا * وَدَاعِيًا إِلَى اللَّهِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَسِرَاجًا مُنِيرًا) سورة الأحزاب 45-48

[2] لقد قرن الله به صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم من لدن أن كان فطيما أعظم ملك من ملائكته يسلك به طريق المكارم ومحاسن أخلاق العالم ليله ونهاره (الإمام علي)

[3] اخرج ابن أخي فإنك الرفيع كعبا والمنيع حزبا والأعلى أبا والله لا يسلقك لسان إلا سلقته ألسن حداد واجتذبته سيوف حداد (أبو طالب)

[4] (فاصدع بما تؤمر وأعرض عن المشركين) سورة الحجر 94

[5] حديث يوم الدار

[6]  (بنعمته إخوانا) سورة آل عمران 103

[7]  (على شفا حفرة من النار) سورة آل عمران 103

[8]  (خير أمة أخرجت للناس) سورة آل عمران 110

 [9](ولقد نصركم الله ببدر وأنتم أذلة فاتقوا الله لعلكم تشكرون) سورة آل عمران 123

[10] (لقد نصركم الله في مواطن كثيرة) سورة التوبة 25

[11]  (إنك ميت وإنهم ميتون) سورة الزمر 30